By Neal H. Atebara, MD
Discusses present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. offers optics of the human eye; uncomplicated recommendations of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and phone lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, category of visible functionality deficits, sufferer evaluation and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.
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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Light moves fastest in a vacuum and slower th rough any material. The refractive index of an optical medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the medium and is usually denoted in mathematical equations by the lowercase letter n. The speed of light in a vacuu m is 299,792,458 m/s. This is approximately 300,000 kmls or 186,000 miles/s. In 1983 the Systeme International defined a meter as the distance light travels in a vacuum during 1/ 299,792,458 of a second.
One exception is silicone polymer. The refractive index of polymerized silicone at room temperature (20°C) differs enough from its index at eye temperature (35°C) that manufac turers of silicone intraocular lenses (lOLs) have to account for the variation. Refractive index also va ries with wavelength. As discussed earlier in this text, physical optics regards light in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. The visual system perceives diffe rent wavelengths of light as different colors. Long wavelengths appear red, intermediate wavelengths appear yellow or green , and short wavelengths appear blue.
O 2h V C Stimulated emission hv ~ 0 E, Eo Figure 1-15 Schematic representat ion of an electron moving bet ween the lowest energy (ground) state (Eo) and an allowed exci ted state (Ell in conjunct ion w ith absorpti on of a quantum of light energy (t1. E ::::: E, - Eo ::::: hv). A, Stimu lated ab sorption. B, Spontan eous emissi on. C, Stimulated em ission . (Reproduced with permission from Stein ert RF, Puliafito CA. The Nd:YAG Laser in Ophthalmology: Princ iples and Clinical Applications of Phot odisruption.