By Sally Russell
It is a significant new textbook masking the most modules of the OCR A2 syllabus inside of a unmarried source. The ebook is in particular designed to aid scholars of all studying kinds comprehend the topic. the color layout and pedagogical units corresponding to key case containers, instance bins, diagrams and tables deliver the topic to existence and make examine fascinating. The ebook contains summaries, job containers and self-test inquiries to aid scholars to recollect the legislations. It integrates into each one module exam-tip packing containers, essay and examination questions, and guidance for solutions, in addition to a bankruptcy of exam recommendation, to assist scholars reach checks and assignments.
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Also for the material in Study Block 17, and all the other Special Study Units, which has been reproduced directly from the OCR Website. With a huge thank you to my husband Dave, not only for the tremendous support he gave me but also for preparing the diagrams and the many, many hours of proofreading. qxd 11/16/06 4:29 PM Page 3 Introduction to Part 1 UNIT 3A CRIMINAL LAW In this Unit we will first look at general liability in criminal law, covering the requirements of actus reus and mens rea.
Legal causation: chain of causation This is based on what is called the ‘chain of causation’. It means proving an unbroken link, or chain, between D’s action and the end result, for example death in homicide cases. When something has occurred after D’s original act, then it may be argued that the chain of causation is broken. We will look at some cases to explain how this works but, in summary, the chain of causation will not be broken if: l D’s action makes a ‘significant’ contribution to the death (Smith/Cheshire).
Statutory duty to act The Road Traffic Act 1988 makes it an offence for a driver involved in a road accident to fail to stop and give a name and address when asked or to fail to report the accident to the police. Failing to stop/report (an omission) is thus part of the actus reus of those crimes. Contractual duty to act In Pittwood (1902) D was employed as a gatekeeper by a railway company. His job was to keep the gate at the crossing shut whenever a train passed. One day he forgot to close the gate.