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By Matsui H.

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Up to now, the most frequently used unit for concentration is the mass of nanomaterial per testing medium volume. However, also the dosed particle number concentration, surface area of nanoparticles, and even the number of nanoparticles per area of lung tissue or culture dish may be suited to assess the significance of nanoparticle effects. Therefore, both mass concentration and particle size distributions must be determined in order to allow for dose unit conversions and comparability of different studies.

The validity of the underlying model assumptions can sometimes not be easily tested by the nonexpert user. The interpretation of measurement data of ensemble-averaging analysis techniques therefore requires awareness for possible experimental error sources. Especially, unexpected particle features such as exotic shape, spontaneous agglomeration, or surface charging effects may result in systematically misinterpreted data. Therefore, the applied model assumptions generally require verification by microscopic analysis of a representative set of individual particles.

A. Lenz, E. Karg, B. Lentner, V. Dittrich, C. Brandenberger, B. Rothen-Rutishauser, H. Schulz, G. Ferron, and O. Schmid, “A dose-controlled system for air–liquid interface cell exposure and application to zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Part. , vol. 6, 2009, p. 32. D. Kaiser and R. cfm. NIST, 2007. 35. W. Catenhusen and A. pdf 36. R. M. David, “Nanomaterial characterization: Considerations and needs for hazard assessment and safety evaluation,” Anal. Bioanal. , vol. 396, 2010, pp. 953–961. B. ” Toxicol.

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