By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
Half I. creation: 1. creation F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. innovations and strategies: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. reliable isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic sessions: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, okay. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. residence and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. building and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; normal index
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Additional info for A geologic time scale 2004
166 Bajoc. 170 156 Callovian Middle Jurassic 176 178±4 Bajocian 181 Aalenian Aalenian 187 188 Toarcian 194 Pliensbach. 200 200 Triassic Triassic Sinemur. 7 Kim. 6 152 141 Kim. 0 Toarcian Toarcian Pliensbach. 6(b) Comparison at the stage level of selected Mesozoic time scales with GTS2004. 1 Norian 160 Callovian Norian Norian 150 Bathonian Bathonian 187 Rhaet. 2 Kimmeridg. 0 Rhaetian Norian 130 Kim. 9 Pliensbach. 0 Hettangian Hettangian Hettangian 208 208 Rhaet. Pliensbach. Pliensbach. 5 Oxfordian Oxfordian 163 Aptian Tithonian Oxfordian Tithonian Oxfordian 152 Albian 114 Barremian Hauterivian Hauterivian 100 110 112 Barremian 125 Neocomian 135 190 Albian 108 113 119 Hauterivian 121 Barremian - 130 113 119 120 120 180 Albian Aptian Tithonian Berr.
It is now over 25 years since the ﬁrst boundary stratotype or GSSP “golden spike” was deﬁned. It ﬁxed the lower limit of the Lochkovian Stage, the oldest stage of the Devonian, at a precise level in an outcrop with the appropriate name of Klonk in the Czech Republic (Martinsson, 1977). Paleontologically, the base of the Lochkovian Stage coincides with the ﬁrst occurrence of the Devonian graptolite Monograptus uniformis in bed No. 20 of the Klonk Section, northeast of the village of Suchomasty (Chlu´pa˘ c, 1993).
For example, McArthur et al. (2000) observed a dramatic variability in Pliensbachian and Toarcian ammonite zones when scaled to a linear trend in the 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio of the oceans (see Chapter 18). However, the average of the durations is not much off. , 1999) yielded relative durations for the Hettangian, Sinemurian, and Pliensbachian that are within error limits of those of SEPM95. The advent of 40Ar/39Ar radiometric age dates on bentonites in local ammonite zones in a large part of the US Western Interior Cretaceous was a signiﬁcant improvement for Late Cretaceous chronology.