By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough stories ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar studies the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse positive factors of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o indicates many strange typological positive aspects, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our knowing of the advance of the Uto-Aztecan family members of languages in historic and areal point of view.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
B. c. d. /i/: nit ‘pregnant woman’ /e/ [ë]: net ‘chief, lineage head’ /u/: nutkeve ‘bag lunch’ /a/: tatxa’ash ‘manzanita berries’ Examples of unstressed short vowels are seen in (33). (33) Unstressed short vowels a. /i/: %ha’vit ‘Mexican person’, pe-ki ‘3 S ’s house’ b. /e/ [ë]: kwivet ‘brush enclosure’, Kelelve ‘Manzanita Place (Puerta Cruz)’ (place name) c. /u/: tukut ‘wildcat’, nu-$hu ‘my mother’s mother’ d. , pit [pIt] ‘road’. , ivi’aw [¿eÈvi¿aw] ‘here’. , tutuchin [ÈtutëtSIn] ‘will tell’, puvulim [ÈpuvëlIm] ‘doctors’.
2. In the practical orthography, stress is written on these stressed prefixes even when the prefix is word-initial. To write stress on such forms, an exceptional marking of stress on the first syllable, makes clear that the stressed element is a prefix and that the construction involves a stressless root. Example (43c), pipeqwa, also has an object proclitic pi= before the subject prefix pe- ‘3 S ’. (43) Representation of stress on prefixed stressless roots a. neye ‘my mother’ b. chemna ‘our father’ c.
However, the constraint against an unstressed final short vowel apparently overrides the DEP constraint against epenthesis for forms like those in (66). 2. E PENTHESIS W ITH SUFFIXED NOUNS . As with verbs, we can be fairly sure that the vowels appearing before suffixes with certain nouns are epenthetic. For instance, a number of nouns in the possessed state exhibit final consonants, where the vowel that appears in the non-possessed state is not present. Thus the vowels in the suffixed forms in examples like (67) are probably epenthetic.