By Carlo C. DiClemente
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Additional resources for Addiction and change : how addictions develop and addicted people recover
Brown, 1993; S. A. Brown, Goldman, & Christiansen, 1985). This has led to an integration of conditioning and social learning perspectives. For example, expectancy effects can vary in strength and magnitude depending on the presence of various cues. , 1985). There is substantive evidence for the role of conditioning and reinforcement effects in addictions. However, models that use only these two principles to explain acquisition and recovery appear to have difficulty explaining all the phenomena of addiction and change.
Beginning and quitting addictive behaviors involve the individual and his or her unique decisional considerations. A person’s choices influence and are influenced by both character and social forces. There is an interaction between the individual and the risk and protective factors that influence whether the individual becomes addicted and whether he or she leaves the addiction. The transitions into and out of addictions do not occur without the participation of the addicted individual. The individual is involved in how these influences are processed and whether their impact will be strong enough to overcome 20 UNDERSTANDING ADDICTIONS IN TERMS OF CHANGE contrary values and become incorporated into her or his value system.
Several phenomena in the drug culture also support the important role of conditioning and cues in the acquisition of and recovery from addictive behaviors. The “needle high” of the heroin addict, who only needs to insert a needle with saline solution to get a partial replication of the actual drug-taking experience, supports a conditioning model, as do cocaine addicts who begin to sweat and get anxious at the sight of any bolus of a white substance, be it sugar or flour. In fact, many addictive behaviors seem to operate in a situation-specific manner.