By Kurt E. Geckeler, Hiroyuki Nishide
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Extra resources for Advanced Nanomaterials, Two Volume Edition
1). Due to the high reactivity of the chain end with other compounds, extremely stringent conditions must be met in order to avoid unwanted side reactions. Therefore, the polymerization must be carried out without any trace of oxygen or water, and all monomers and solvents must be extensively dried, degassed, and puriﬁed before use [32, 33]. 1 Block Copolymers as Useful Nanomaterials advantage to anionic polymerization is the limited range of monomers available for synthesis. Although the standard styrenes, methacrylates, butadiene, isoprene, ethylene oxide, vinylpyridines, and amino acids can all be synthesized using this technique, monomers with reactive functional groups cannot be used because they will interfere with the anionic chain end.
Examples of polymer analogous reactions include hydrogenation , epoxidation , hydrolysis , sulfonation , hydroboration/oxidation [64, 65], quaternization , hydrosilylation , and chloro/bromomethylation [68, 69]. Further details for each of these reactions is also available . In this section, we have set the foundation for understanding how the chemistry of block copolymeric materials relates to the physics of their unique self-assembling properties. In the remainder of the chapter, it will become clear how these novel chemical strategies are used to effect practical physical applications.
And high vacuum. 16. Further processing of this polymer in order to maximize the degree of long-range ordering is currently under way . It is believed that this combination of traditional “topdown” positive- and negative-tone lithography techniques, in combination with the power of “bottom-up” BCP self-assembly, holds much promise for the future of lithography. 3 Multilevel Resist Strategies Using Block Copolymers The constant drive for smaller and smaller circuit device features with higher aspect ratios and more complex substrate topographies has caused many photolithographic engineers to rethink traditional single-level resist-processing strategies.