By Weilie Zhou
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Additional resources for Advanced scanning microscopy for nanotechnology techniques and applications
Precious metals are not suitable for 36 Weilie Zhou et al. high-resolution SEM because of large grain size and high mobility. ” Some structures would be overcoated whereas other regions of the sample surface may have no film coverage whatsoever thereby creating discontinuous films. In addition to decorative effects of large grain (2–6 nm) metal films, the grain size of large grain precious metals increase the scattering effect of the primary electrons resulting in a higher yield of SE2 and SE3.
As a result during operation, the image will stretch along different direction at underfocus and overfocus condition. This imperfection on the electromagnetic lens is called astigmatism. A series of coils surrounding the electron beam, referred to as “stigmator,” can be used to correct astigmatism and achieve an image with higher resolution. 17a shows an SEM image with extreme astigmatism. When moving through focus the image stretches first in one direction (Fig. 17b) and when the image is in the in-focus position the stretch is minimized (Fig.
The emission enhancement of tilted specimen can be easily understood by Fig. 24a at which a slope surface causes the electron beam strike the specimen surface obliquely and enlarges the effective secondary electron emission area. 6. Specimen Magnification Magnification is given by the ratio of the scanning length of the CRT image to the corresponding scanning line on the specimen. The WD and the accelerating voltage on the electron beam will also affect the scanning area. However, for many electron microscopes, only the scanning signal is related to the magnification gauge.