By Yoshio Sugimoto
This revised version has been up-to-date to hide advancements within the 5 years because the first version was once released. Yoshio Sugimoto demanding situations the conventional idea that Japan is an homogeneous society with few cultural and social disparities.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Japanese Society, Second Edition
Clammer 2001 takes a comparative, non-Western perspective seriously and attempts to bring the study of Japanese society into dialogue with some recent developments in cultural studies. White 1987b. Kashima et al. 1996. The same study also demonstrates that the level of kanjin orientation is consistently higher among females than among males in all the societies under analysis. See also Hofstede 1984. Befu 1990b; Deutschmann 1987. The discussion below follows Befu’s argument. To¯ kei Su¯ri Kenkyu¯sho 1999, p.
Many important political policy decisions are made by politicians who wine and dine in high class Japanese-style restaurants (called ryo¯tei) where ura-type trading is done behind closed doors. Similarly, local government officials often entertain their national counterparts in these and other restaurants in order to secure high allocations of national government subsidies, a ura practice which citizens’ groups have criticized as illegitimate use of taxpayers’ money. In the sphere of law, the Japanese are said to be reluctant to sue.
Companies which take part in dango¯ engage in artful pre-tender arrangements where they agree in advance among themselves on their bids and on which company will be the successful tenderer. In return, it is agreed that the unsuccessful companies are entitled to a certain share of the successful company’s profits. The practice of dango¯ rests upon the prevailing “closed” tender system in which a government body designates several companies as entitled to tender. As the number of companies designated is normally limited to ten or so, they can easily engage in pre-tender negotiations and come to mutually agreed clandestine deals.