By Pradyumna S. Singh, Edgar D. Goluch (auth.), Noam Eliaz (eds.)
The research of electrochemical nanotechnology has emerged as researchers practice electrochemistry to nanoscience and nanotechnology. those comparable volumes within the Modern elements of Electrochemistry sequence overview contemporary advancements and breakthroughs within the particular program of electrochemistry and nanotechnology to biology and medication. across the world popular specialists give a contribution chapters that tackle either basic and sensible features of numerous key rising applied sciences in biomedicine, corresponding to the processing of recent biomaterials, biofunctionalization of surfaces, characterization of biomaterials, discovery of novel phenomena and organic approaches happening on the molecular level.
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Extra info for Applications of Electrochemistry and Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine II
Since both electrodes in the IDE geometry are in the same plane, they can be created using a single lithographic step. The sensitivity of IDEs is generally determined by how small the spacing between electrodes can be made, which is determined by fabrication limitations. IDEs are most often used as conductometric sensors83-85 but they are also utilized in analytical86-88 and bioanalytical89-91 amperometric detection strategies. Recent fabrication improvements have rekindled interest in the technology.
Besides inherent limitations of SEM in the sub-10 nm regime, the problem is compounded by the fact that the small electrode is buried in a thick layer of insulating material (for example, glass, wax, or electrophoretic paint), which complicates imaging due to sample instability and charging issues. A way to circumvent this issue is to deposit a thin metal layer on the insulating part of the electrode, but this is difficult to accomplish selectively, and further the contrast between the deposited layer and the metal electrode has to be high enough to yield useful images.
2. Although the above mentioned techniques for producing nanoelectrodes are relatively simple and inexpensive, they have inherent uncertainties in the precise shape and size of the final electrode (vide infra) especially as dimensions shrink below 10 nm. The main alternative is to use standard microfabrication /micromachining processes. Although these microfabrication processes require specialized equipment and are therefore more expensive, they also have considerable potential for commercialization if robust protocols for fabrication can be developed.