By Anna Tummers, Koenraad Jonckheere
The query even if seventeenthcentury painters corresponding to Rembrandt and Rubens created the work that have been later offered below their names, has brought on many a heated debate. a lot continues to be unknown in regards to the ways that work have been produced, assessed, priced, and advertised. for instance, did modern connoisseurs anticipate masters equivalent to Rembrandt to color their works fullyyt by means of their very own hand? Who was once credited having the ability to examine work? How did a painting’s cost relate to its caliber? and the way did connoisseurship switch because the paintings industry turned more and more advanced? The participants to this crucial quantity hint the evolution of connoisseurship within the booming paintings industry of the 17th- and eighteenth centuries. between them are the popular Golden Age students Eric Jan Sluijter, Hans Van Miegroet and Neil De Marchi. it isn't to be overlooked through someone with an curiosity within the previous Masters and the early glossy paintings industry.
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Extra info for Art Market and Connoisseurship: A Closer Look at Paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens and Their Contemporaries (Amsterdam Studies in the Dutch Golden Age)
4. 5. 6. 4. Gerrit van Honthorst, see colorplate p. 180 Allegory on the Marriage of Frederik Hendrik and Amalia van Solms,1651 Oranjezaal, Huis ten Bosch 5. Gerrit van Honthorst, see colorplate p. 180 Wiliam II’s Reception of Mary Stuart upon her Arrival in the Netherlands, 1649 Oranjezaal, Huis ten Bosch 6. Gerrit van Honthorst, see colorplate p. indd 45 07-10-2008 16:33:58 46 ANNA TU M M E R S Seventeenth-century insights as to attributing pictures Studio practices and signing habits are of course crucial when trying to recognise the master’s hand and to attribute seventeenth-century pictures.
Seventeenth-century connoisseurs were certainly interested in attaching names to paintings. In fact, attributing pictures seems to have been an entertaining pastime among the upper echelons of society in Europe. 2 A letter sent from Paris by the Dutch scientist and art lover Christiaan Huygens to his brother Constantijn in The Hague shows that these rather playful attribution debates were not an exclusively British phenomenon. indd 31 07-10-2008 16:33:57 32 ANNA TU M M E R S only to conclude in the end that out of 300 drawings that were given to Raphael there were but two originals.
This can be deduced from statements in contracts and notarial deeds explaining that if a work was retouched substantially enough, it could, in fact, count as by the master, such as the above cited examples of Jordaens and Van Vucht illustrate. Thus, if a work was explicitly identiﬁed as ‘retouched’, it must have been a cheaper kind of picture. Rubens, for example, sold retouched student copies for cheaper prices than his higher quality pictures. As he explained in a letter to the British collector Dudley Carleton, ‘retouched copies … show more for their price’ (see also below, p.