By E. Palmén and C.W. Newton (Eds.)
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Trans. Roy. Soc. London A196, 123-164. , and Yeh, T. C. (1950). The intensity of the net meridional circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 182-188. , and Martin, D. W. (1964). The zonal flow in the free atmosphere between ION and 80S, in the South American sector. J. Appl. Meteorol. 3, 726-733. Sheppard, P. , and Omar, M. H. (1952). The wind stress over the ocean from observations in the Trades. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 583-589. Smagorinsky, J. (1963). General circulation experiments with the primitive equations: I.
The same is true of the water-vapor flux. Considering also that the winter-summer mean may not represent a true annual average, it is difficult to judge which of the curves in Fig. 6 better represents the real northward flux of energy in the atmosphere.
4 MAINTENANCE OF THE ZONAL CIRCULATION We shall now turn to the main question of the maintenance of the mean atmospheric circulation. 5) Here C'I' and C, represent the meridional and vertical circulation fluxes, and J'I' and J, the corresponding eddy fluxes. 6) Inserting Eqs. 6) into Eq. 7b) These terms represent the contributions of the meridional and vertical divergences of the eddy fluxes of angular momentum, and can be considered analogous to "frictional" terms caused by large- and small-scale eddy (Reynolds) stresses.