By Walter Tape
Published through the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Special courses Series.
Atmospheric halos are noticeable phenomena of a lot attractiveness and fascination. From our earliest identified files, courting from the Sumerian-Babylonian tradition of 4-5,000 years in the past, to fashionable researchers, halos have saved us having a look skyward. brought on by gentle refracted via ice crystals floating within the surroundings, they could seem at approximately any time and position. What do the ice crystals appear like, particularly those who make the unique "odd radius" halos? what's the worth of the elusive attitude x, so severe to choosing the shapes of those crystals? What halo screens will we comprehend good and what monitors can we now not comprehend at all?
This booklet responds to such questions, and extra, with a multifaceted view of halo technological know-how. specialists and newcomers alike will locate this ebook the definitive source at the topic. positive aspects include:
- The "how to" in halo remark and photography
- Carefully analyzed images of infrequent halo monitors and pyramidal ice crystals
- The early heritage of halo science
- Elegant new causes of ways halos form
- Authoritative dialogue of strange radius halos
We invite you to gaze up and detect the area of halos.
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–8):
Chapter 2 Ice Crystal Gallery (pages 9–20):
Chapter three The Beginnings of Halo technology (pages 21–32):
Chapter four How Halos shape (pages 33–42):
Chapter five Halo Simulations (pages 43–50):
Chapter 6 Halos From Prismatic Crystals (pages 51–64):
Chapter 7 unusual Radius Halos are actual (pages 65–70):
Chapter eight abnormal Radius round Halos (pages 71–89):
Chapter nine a few Crystallography (pages 91–100):
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Ice Crystals (pages 101–112):
Chapter eleven the quest for perspective x (pages 113–128):
Chapter 12 Refraction Halos and Wedge perspective (pages 129–132):
Chapter thirteen The Spin Vector (pages 133–136):
Chapter 14 A User's consultant to Halo Poles (pages 137–144):
Chapter 15 abnormal Radius Plate Arcs (pages 145–164):
Chapter sixteen ordinary Radius Column Arcs (pages 165–178):
Chapter 17 unusual Radius Parry Arcs (pages 179–182):
Chapter 18 different Wedge Angles? (pages 183–194):
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Additional resources for Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X
6 is an all-sky simulation of halos due t o oriented columns. T h e simulation contains 20,000 halo points, each of which arises from a ray p a t h through some crystal. T h e computer can remember t h e ray p a t h for each halo point a n d can be instructed t o sort and count ray paths, t h u s showing which types of ray p a t h s were responsible for t h e halos. T h e table in t h e figure shows t h e result of sorting the 20,000 ray paths. ) But which ray p a t h s made which halos? W e next show by example how t h e computer can help t o answer this question.
T h e simulation in t h e left-hand diagram is t h e closest t o Wegener's diagram; in both diagrams t h e responsible crystals were oriented columns, t h e tilts of t h e crystals were zero, a n d t h e allowed r a y p a t h s were only those t h a t make t h e tangent arc. T h e t w o diagrams agree with regard t o t h e region of sky occupied by the halos, b u t t h e computer simulation enjoys a crucial a d v a n t a g e in t h a t , unlike the Wegener diagram, it indicates intensity variations within t h e halo.
If you were seeing good halos in your sparkles, you will normally find some hexagonal prisms—plates or columns—in your sample. For those of us living in cold places it is easy to believe t h a t halos arise in prismatic ice crystals. Mariotte was right. Although Mariotte was right about the responsible ice particles, it was Huygens who b e t t e r understood t h e role of t h e orientation of t h e particles, and it was Huygens who had worked out t h e m a t h e m a t i c s of t h e refraction of light rays in three dimensions.