By Dmitry Murzin, Olga Simakova (eds.)
Biomass-derived sugars offer a wealthy, renewable feedstock for a various diversity of chemical compounds, making them a promising and possible resource for the sustainable manufacture of various important items. Exploring eco-friendly sugar-based applied sciences past their purposes in fuels, this publication offers an outline of sugar-based applied sciences, describing their demanding situations and possibilities. It covers ameliorations of sugars into eco-friendly chemical compounds in prescribed drugs, biodegradable polymers and surfactants. a unique bankruptcy is devoted to the conversion of biomass into sugars, that is a vital step within the sustainable usage of sugars. The ebook is a invaluable source for chemists and chemical engineers operating to improve greener artificial routes to chemical substances and prescribed drugs
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Extra info for Biomass Sugars for Non-Fuel Applications
151–153 Structurally, HPAs are of two types, namely Keggin and Dawson with molecular formulae of XYxM(12Àx)O40 and X2M18O62, respectively (where X is a heteroatom from the p-block and Y and M are addendum atoms). For example, H3PW12O40 and H5PMo10V2O40 have Keggin structures and H6P2Mo18O62 has a Dawson structure. The protonated forms of HPAs are homogeneous in nature, however, partial replacement of protons by larger ions such as Cs1, Ag1 etc. makes HPAs heterogeneous. 94 From the results obtained with all catalysts, the authors have concluded that stronger Brønsted acid catalysts are more favourable for hydrolysis of b-1,4glycosidic bonds compared to Lewis acid catalysts.
136 The good correlation of activation energy values between silica catalysts and homogeneous catalysts revealed that mass transfer limitation is not playing any significant role and the reactions are guided only by hydrated protons. 137 These facts elucidate the capability of many solid acid catalysts with a pore diameter o2 nm to hydrolyse bigger molecules such as cellulose or hemicelluloses. 10 Chapter 1 Possible pathway for the formation of H3O1 in bulk water to catalyse the hydrolysis of saccharides.
However, they have the drawback of diﬀusion limitations and thus can slow down the reaction compared to their homogeneous counterparts. Moreover, solid acids can easily be poisoned by water (by forming a solvation layer around acid sites by hydrogen bonding) or they degrade during the hydrothermal treatment involved under biomass conversion conditions and consequently, it becomes absolutely critical to design and develop solid acids that can tolerate water poisoning and are hydrothermally stable.