By Peter Grunwald
Content material: 1. fundamentals in carbohydrate chemistry / Heinrich Hühnerfuss -- 2. Glycoconjugates : a quick review / Peter Grunwald -- three. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in attractiveness tactics / Thisbe okay. Lindhorst -- four. Glycoside hydrolases / Motomitsu Kitaoka -- five. Disaccharide phosphorylases : mechanistic range and alertness within the glycosciences / Christiane Luley-Goedl and Bernd Nidetzky -- 6. Enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of nucleotide sugars : novel enzymes, novel substrates, novel items, and novel routes / Leonie Engels and Lothar Elling -- 7. Iteratively performing glycosyltransferases / Marta Luzhetska and Andreas Bechthold -- eight. Bacterial glycosyltransferases keen on molecular mimicry of mammalian glycans / Warren Wakarchuk -- nine. Sulfotransferases and sulfatases : sulfate amendment of carbohydrates / Eli Chapman and Sarah R. Hanson -- 10. Glycosylation in health and wellbeing and affliction / Peter Grunwald -- eleven. Sialic acid derivatives, analogues, and mimetics as organic probes and inhibitors of sialic acid spotting proteins / Joe Tiralongo and Thomas Haselhorst -- 12. Enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism and catabolism for chemoenzymatic syntheses of complicated oligosaccharides / Julian Thimm and Joachim Thiem -- thirteen. From gene to product : tailored oligosaccharides and polysaccharides by means of enzyme and substrate engineering / Jürgen Seibel -- 14. Synthesis and amendment of carbohydrates through metabolic pathway engineering in microorganisms / Xian-wei Liu ... [et al.] -- 15. Metabolic pathway engineering for hyaluronic acid creation / Esteban Marcellin, Wendy Y. Chen, and Lars ok. Nielsen -- sixteen. Microbial rhamnolipids / Markus M. Müller ... [et al.] -- 17. Chitin-converting enzymes / Karin Moss ... [et al.] -- 18. Linear and cyclic oligosaccharides / Hajime Taniguchi -- 19. Fungal degradation of plant oligo- and polysaccharides / Ronald P. de Vries ... [et al.] -- 20. Bacterial ideas for plant mobile degradation and their genomic details / Yutaka Tamaru and Roy H. Doi -- 21. layout of effective multienzymatic reactions for cellulosic biomass processing / Anne S. Meyer
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This sugar may now serve as an acceptor for the next sugar molecule with a glycosidic linkage being established between the C1(OH) or C2(OH) of the donor and one of the accessible positions (2, 3, 4, 6) of the acceptor substrate, and so forth. Glycosylation of ceramide results in the formation of GSLs (see Chapter 10). Many proteins are anchored by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (Fig. 17) to the cell surface; its biosynthesis requires phosphatidylinositol as acceptor substrate. , 2006). , 1997). 1 The nine nucleotide sugar donors (with symbols for the sugar part) that may be transferred to different protein and lipid acceptors which are Ser or Thr (O-glycosylation) and Asn (N-glycosylation), or ceramide in case of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis.
The ring oxygen is always placed in the back 9 10 Basics in Carbohydrate Chemistry right-hand corner of the ring, with the anomeric carbon C1 on the right hand side and the primary alcohol group drawn up from the back left corner C5. Groups on the right in a Fischer projection are pointing down in a Haworth projection, while groups on the left in a Fischer projection are directed upward in a Haworth projection. These two rules can lead to didactic disasters according to the present author’s experience: if students have to convert the Haworth projection formulae to the realist chair configuration, they often misinterpret the Haworth rules and assume an all-axial direction of the HO groups in glucose.
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