By Kenneth Pye
It is greater than part a century because the e-book of R. A. Bagnold’s vintage e-book The physics of blown sand and wasteland dunes, and it's a tribute to the standard of Bagnold’s paintings that a number of the basic ideas which he constructed - major legitimate at the present time. His publication is still crucial analyzing for any critical s- dent of aeolian techniques. in spite of the fact that, the previous 20 years have obvious an explosion within the scale of analysis facing aeolian delivery methods, sediments, and landforms. a few of this paintings has been summarized in evaluate papers and edited convention court cases, yet this e-book presents the rst try and assessment the full eld of aeolian sand learn. unavoidably, it has now not been attainable to hide all - pects in equivalent intensity, and the stability of integrated fabric certainly re ects the - thors’ personal pursuits to a signi cant measure. although, our objective has been to supply as vast a viewpoint as attainable, and to supply an access element to an intensive mul- disciplinary scienti c literature, a few of which has no longer been given the eye it merits in prior textbooks and overview papers. Many examples are drawn from latest released paintings, however the booklet additionally makes huge use of our personal learn within the heart East, Australia, Europe, and North the USA. The e-book has been written largely to be used by means of complicated undergraduates, po- graduates, and extra senior study staff in geomorphology and sedimentology.
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Additional info for Aeolian Sand and Sand Dunes
2 Atmospheric Stability and Instability in Subtropical Deserts More than 99% of the world’s active sand dunes are located in deserts which are characterized by a stable, dry atmosphere. Some of the great deserts lie under the subtropical high-pressure belts which give rise to subsidence and high temperatures. The heated air which rises in the equatorial region releases latent heat as it creates masses of clouds. When this air subsides in the subtropics it is heated adiabatically; hence, at an equivalent altitude it is warmer than in the tropics.
For this reason, desert dune fields have very low wind velocities during summer nights (Fig. 6b). The great amount of heat energy concentrated at the surface during the daytime is the driving force behind most of the summer sand storms in subtropical deserts. The hot surface air disperses the inversion and forms an unstable low-altitude mixing layer in which aeolian processes are operative (Fig. 6a) (Warren & Knott 1983). Fig. 6a,b Schematic diagram of the lapse rate over a subtropical desert during (a) summer day time and (b) summer night time.
38 2 The Nature of Airflow Fig. 766 × 10−5 m In areas where tall vegetation of height h covers the surface, the datum surface of zero height cannot be taken at ground level but must be displaced upward by a height, d, known as the zero plane displacement (Deacon 1953, Monteith 1973, p. 88). The value of d can only be determined from the wind profile. The height above the zero plane, z − d, replaces z in Eq. 8h Close to a very smooth ground surface the wind speed decreases (Fig. 4 Flow in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer 39 the laminar sub-layer.