By Yoshio Sugimoto
This revised variation has been up-to-date to hide advancements within the 5 years because the first version was once released. Yoshio Sugimoto demanding situations the conventional idea that Japan is an homogeneous society with few cultural and social disparities.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Japanese Society (2nd Edition)
The rising number of students enrolled in universities and other institutions of higher education leads to the mass production of citizens exposed and oriented to individualistic and rational thinking. The disintegration of the family and kinship systems, plus the gradual dissolution of the local community, tend to liberate individuals from intense social constraints imposed by these traditional structures. As Japanese workers become accustomed to material affluence, their legendary work ethic tends to dissipate and their lifestyles become more hedonistic.
For example, Sugimoto and Mouer 1980; Befu 1990a; Mouer and Sugimoto 1986; and Dale 1986. See, for example, Yoshino 1992 and 1997; Oguma 1995 and 2002; Amino ¯ saka 1997 and 1999; and Befu 1990, 1992, 1994 and 2000; Takano and O 2001. Markus and Kitayama 1991; Kitayama 1998; Kitayama, Markus, Matsumoto and Norsakkunkit 1997. Arai 2000. Mahathir 1999. Mahathir and Ishihara 1996. The description below follows Tominaga 1988, pp. 2–50. Dore 1973. Johnson 1982 and 1990. Murakami 1984a. Dore 1987. Berger and Hsiao 1988.
The legitimation of duality underlying the Japanese vocabulary provides a pretext for corrupt activities. In the ura side of business transactions, for example, Japanese companies use the category of shito fumei kin (expenses unaccounted for) to conceal the identity of the recipient of the expenditure. They can do this as long as they declare those expenses to be subject to taxation. The corporate world uses this method extensively to hide secret payoffs, kickbacks, and political donations. 82 The honne of the participants in these deals is to promote the mutual interests of uchi networks of business and politics.