By Hugh Garner Bennett
The speedy improvement of utilized Chemistry lately has caused a revolution in all branches of expertise. This progress has been speeded up in the course of the conflict, and the British Empire has now a chance of accelerating its commercial output via the appliance of this data to the uncooked fabrics to be had within the varied components of the realm. the topic during this sequence of handbooks can be handled from the chemical instead of the engineering point of view. the economic element may also be extra fashionable than that of the laboratory.
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The}* are arranged in series, as in leaching, arj VEGETABLE TANNAGE 37 the liquor passes in succession through all the vats over wood less and less spent. es about two atmospheres and the temperature about 1 3 0 0 C. ). ). After extraction the liquor is allowed to stand, and much insoluble m a t t e r settles out—resins, wood, fibre, etc. The clarified and settled liquor is then passed through a cooler up to about 55° C , and then run into the decolorizing plant, a deep v a t fitted with a copper steam coil and mechanical stirrer attached to power.
Pine bark, from Pinas abies, is one of the staple materials of the Continent. I t contains up to 14 per cent, of a catechol tan, and,- unlike most of this group, contains a high proportion of sugar and will give good results alone. Hemlock bark has been the staple tanning material of North America. I t is obtained from the hemlock, or Pinus canadensis. It contains up to 11 per cent, of t a n and much phlobaphene, and yields a characteristic red. leather of good quality, but which rapidly darkens with sunlight.
This is one of the objects of " p l u m p i n g / ' which splits up the fibres. I t is attained also by the solution of interfibrillar substance in limes and bates. The amount adsorbed is also a function of the volume concentration in the sol after equilibrium is reached. Hence the better weights are obtained with stronger liquors. The adsorption law is L y — =acn m where y is weight adsorbed by the weight m of adsorbent, and c the volume concentration after adsorption ; a and n are numeral constants.